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cpp

Definition

C++ is a general-purpose programming language with imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features. There are several ISO-Standards (ISO/IEC 14882) of the lanaguage referred as C++98, C++03, C++11, C++14, C++17, C++20.

Guidlines

Differences to C

C++ is mostly compatible to C. However C constructs are often unsafe and should not be used in C++. If you are used to C-programming, here is a list of the most important best practices compared to C.

Allocation: use new TYPE() and delete instead of malloc and free

Typecast: use static_cast<TYPE>(x) instead of C-Style (TYPE)x

Smart-Pointers: use std::unique_ptr most of the time instead of raw pointers

Null-Pointer: use nullptr instead of C-Style NULL

Iterators: use auto when declaring iterators

Arrays: use std::array for static-length arrays and std::vector for dynamic. Do not use C-Style [ ] arrays.

Strings: use std::string or std::wstring instead of C-Style char*

for (const auto i : container){
  // do something
}

C++ Standard Library

The C++ standard consists of two parts: the core language and the standard library. Programmers can expect the standard library on every major implementation of C++.

see http://en.cppreference.com/w/cpp/header

headers begining with ā€œcā€ are the cpp variant of the standard library of the C language. See http://en.cppreference.com/w/c/header for a comparison. The C++ Standard Library also defines headers with identical names to the C library for compatibility.