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Definition

A Power Supply Unit (PSU) converts mains AC to low-voltage regulated DC power for the internal components of a computer.

Color Codes of ATX

Color Voltage
Yellow +12.0V
Red +5.0V
Orange +3.3V
Black Ground
White -5.0V
Blue -12.0V

Additional: Green is Power-On which can be shorted to ground to start PSU.

Efficiency Rating (80 PLUS)

80 PLUS is voluntary certification program intended to promote the efficiency of PSUs. It certifies the energy effiency at different load levels

Example

An efficiency of 90% at 50% load means that a PSU rated at 180W (maximum delivery), will draw 100W from the wall plug in order to deliver 90W to the target device.

Non-Redundant PSU

Cartificate 20% load 50% load 100% load
80 PLUS 82 % 85 % 82 %
Bronze 85 % 88 % 85 %
Silver 87 % 90 % 87 %
Gold 90 % 92 % 89 %
Platinum 92 % 94 % 90 %
Titanium 90 % 94 % 96 %

Redundant PSUs

Cartificate 20% load 50% load 100% load
Bronze 81 % 85 % 81 %
Silver 85 % 89 % 85 %
Gold 88 % 92 % 88 %
Platinum 90 % 94 % 91 %
Titanium 94 % 96 % 91 %

References

https://plugloadsolutions.com