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A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of digital messages or documents. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender (authentication), that the sender cannot deny having sent the message (non-repudiation), and that the message was not altered in transit (integrity).

Working Principles and Implementations

Factorization based Signature

Given a modulus N=pqN = pq, where p and q a prime. Further a public key ee and a private key dd.

To sign a message, m, the signer computes a signature, σ, such that σmd(modN)σ ≡ m^d (mod N).

To verify a message, the receiver checks that σem(modN)σ^e ≡ m (mod N).


Alice wants to send a document to Bob. Bob wants proof (signature) that the document is from Alice. Bob knows the public key of Alice.


  1. Alice calculates hash of the document
  2. Alice encrypts hash with her private key => signature
  3. Alice adds the signature to the document


  1. Bob decrypts the signature of document with the public key of Alice
  2. Bob calculates the hash of the document
  3. Bob checks if the hash matches the decrypted signature