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Object Oriented Programming (OOP)#

OOP is attractive to handle complexity and achieve modularity and maintainability of large programs.

Class: A specification of an object Object: The instance of a class

Classes/Objects consist of attributes and methods.


There are four main concepts in OOP:

  • Encapsulation: Grouping of related attributes and methods
  • Inheritance: Derive classes (hierarchy)
  • Polymorphism: overwrite derived methods; dynamic dispatching
  • Abstraction: Force overwriting


Related data and subprograms are grouped together


Class can be derived from base classes and inherit their methods and attributes


Methods of derived types are overwritten. Class wide calls are dynamically dispatched during runtime.


Specification of abstract interface that must be implemented by objects.

Likov Substitution Principle#

Methods of a base type must be applicable and behave the same for derived types of that base type.

The LSP is important to avoid problems with polymorphism.

Example of LSP

For example, if a type wombat is derived from a type animal, then every behavior that applies class-wide to an animal must also apply in the same way to a wombat.

A typical example of a violation of the principle is a square type derived from a rectangle type. A possible precondition of a rectangle type would be that width and height must be positive, however, for a square type the precondition is strengthened because width and height must be the same.